Hungary's Early Years in the Ryad
Mate Szabo  1  
1 : Carnegie Mellon University

In 1968, Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union initiated a cooperation among the countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) to develop a Unified System of Electronic Computers (ES or Ryad). The Ryad program consisted in an upward-compatible series of computers in order to make up for the CMEA countries' deficits in computing technologies. The goal was achieved by the cloning of IBM's 360 (and later 370) system, different countries being responsible for different members of the series and some of the peripherals. Hungary was responsible for the smallest member of the series, the R10, a computer that did not have a corresponding machine in the IBM 360 series. It was based on the license of the 10010 and later Mitra 15 computers of the French Compagnie International pour l'Informatique (CII) that Hungary bought in 1968. The aim of my talk is to describe Hungary's first couple of years in the project. To achieve this, I briefly describe the state of computer manufacturing in Hungary prior to joining Ryad, give a quick overview of the economic and historical context, and explain the role of the institutions that took part in the project.

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